An Analysis on the Cardiopulmonary Consequences of Vaping Among Adolescents View PDF

Jyotsna Arankkal Jayan
Medicine, All India Institute Of Medical Sciences, India

Published on: 2024-06-19


Despite not being approved as a cessation aid by the United States (US) Food and Drug Administration (FDA), e-cigarettes have sometimes been presented in this way by the industry as a means to help adults stop smoking cigarettes; however, their novelty and customizability have led them into the hands of unintended users, especially teenagers. The research community is increasingly interested in understanding the respiratory and cardiovascular consequences of e-cigarette use since most new users have never smoked traditional cigarettes. Adult e-cigarette users have been the subject of most studies, but these participants are typically former smokers or those who have switched from traditional smoking to e-cigarettes. In this population, e-cigarette use does not alone cause respiratory and cardiovascular consequences. The health effects of naive e-cigarette use have been studied in preclinical studies; however, almost all of these studies used adult animals, which makes translating results to adolescents difficult. Research into novel therapeutic treatment strategies would be helped by a more comprehensive understanding of the pathways involved in toxicity when inhaled foreign substances can affect the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. This scientific statement aims to provide important background information about the cardiopulmonary consequences of vaping in adolescents, assist in the development of therapeutic and prevention strategies, and inform public policymakers about the risks associated with vaping, both short-term and long-term. With frequent entry and rapid evolution of products in the marketplace, electronic nicotine delivery systems have gained popularity over the past decade. Beyond the nicotine content and ratio of vegetable glycerin (VG) to propylene glycol (PG), the composition of liquids within these devices (commonly called electronic liquids) is not publicly known, making it difficult to predict the health effects, including effects on the lungs and heart. It is difficult to regulate e-cigarettes due to their customizable nature, such as power levels, e-liquid content, and a wide array of flavors, and outbreaks of e-cigarette and vaping product use–associated lung injury have made people aware of the dangers associated with illicit cannabis vapes. E-cigarettes are continuously developing products that are continually evolving. Therefore, reducing their public health burden requires understanding their health effects. As the e-cigarette user group grows, the latest evidence regarding cardiopulmonary effects of e-cigarettes will be reviewed in this scientific statement.


E-cigarettes, Cardiopulmonary effects, Adolescents

Overview on the History of E-Cigarettes

Electronic nicotine delivery systems deliver an aerosol (usually containing nicotine) to the user through their lungs. They consist of a battery, an atomizer, and a reservoir for e-liquid. E-cigarettes are the most common electronic nicotine delivery system, resembling pipes, hookahs, cigars, and cigarettes. A number of iterations of e-cigarettes have been released since their introduction to the international market in 2007, but at their core, e-cigarettes remain battery-operated devices that aerosolize e-liquid when touched or puffed. PG/VG is the vehicle in which nicotine, flavors, and other chemical additives are dissolved [1]. Nicotine is increasingly being delivered by e-cigarettes, and now, depending on the user’s characteristics and the device, plasma nicotine levels are comparable to those of smokers. E-cigarette pod mods are the latest iteration. In contrast to free-base nicotine, these devices contain e-liquids containing high nicotine content in salt form. E-cigarettes became more popular among adolescents in between 2017 - 2018 as a result of this market shift, which compensated for the lower power and aerosol generation of pod mod devices. Comparing generation 1 to 3 International Journal of Integrative Cardiology An Analysis on the Cardiopulmonary Consequences of Vaping Among Adolescents Jyotsna Arankkal Jayan1*, Mohammed Afshar Alam2 , Kasagni Srujana3 1 All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India 2 Ayaan Institute of Medical Sciences, Telangana, India 3 Govt medical college, Siddipet, Telangana, India Short Communication DOI: Volume 6 Issue 1 e-cigarettes with combustible cigarettes, generation 1 to 3 e-cigarettes produced lower plasma nicotine levels [2]. The plasma nicotine levels of e-cigarettes of later generation are comparable to those of combustible cigarettes, according to one study.  They, however, caused less plasma nicotine than combustible cigarettes in another study. There may have been a greater level of plasma nicotine in the plasma of more experienced vapers, as suggested by the authors, because the test subjects lacked experience with e-cigarette products. The plasma cotinine level was also compared in two studies comparing e-cigarettes to combustible cigarettes in real-life exposure situations over the long term [3]. These studies did not find a difference in cotinine levels between the groups, indicating that vapers may compensate for reduced delivery efficiency by puffing more often over time. It is important to distinguish between tobacco cessation and nicotine cessation. Despite being partially effective at the former, it is debatable whether they are more effective or inferior to other FDA-approved nicotine replacement therapies. The effectiveness of e-cigarettes in reducing nicotine consumption is absent from their effectiveness in reducing nicotine consumption, with 20% efficacy, whereas nicotine patches have 81% efficacy. E-cigarettes are not effective at aiding tobacco cessation in adolescents. A significant change in US federal tobacco regulatory policy, however, is the introduction of e-cigarettes and other less harmful alternatives to nicotine for adults, which will reduce nicotine levels in combustible cigarettes to levels that do not sustain tobacco addiction [4].

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