Nanotechnology Role in Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy

*Gayatri Devi V
Department Of Biochemistry And Bioinformatics, GITAM University, Andhra Pradesh, India

*Corresponding Author:
Gayatri Devi V
Department Of Biochemistry And Bioinformatics, GITAM University, Andhra Pradesh, India
Email:gayatri.varikuti@gmail.com

Published on: 2021-03-23

Abstract

Cancer is a prominent cause of death and ill health around the world. There is still a deficiency in the efficacy of various cancer medications, despite the fact that numerous ways have been devised to minimise mortality, alleviate chronic pain, and improve the quality of life for those with cancer. For best cancer treatment, early detection and use of drugs with high specificity to minimise side effects must be taken into consideration. Conventional cancer diagnostic and therapeutic methods have become increasingly hazardous and refractory, leading to the development of new strategies, such as nanotechnology, to enhance diagnosis and reduce disease severity. Cancer detection and therapy have been revolutionised by nanotechnology. Cancerous cells can be detected and the very toxic medications delivered to them in vivo by this device. Some of the materials utilised in cancer detection are nanoshells, carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, supermagnetic nanoparticles, nanowires, nanodiamonds, dandrimers, and freshly created nanosponges. As a result, nanotechnology has been examined for the detection of extracellular biomarkers and cancer cells, as well as for in vivo imaging, because to its great sensitivity. The most recent breakthroughs in nanotechnology for cancer diagnosis and treatment are summarised in this article.

Keywords

Nanotechnology, Cancer Diagnosis, Cancer Therapy

Introduction

A major cause of death and a significant burden on world health, cancer must be detected and treated sooner in order to decrease its spread and the number of people who die from it. Nanotechnology is one of the most commonly employed strategies in cancer research nowadays. Scientific information from a wide range of areas in science and engineering may now be applied to nanoscale dimensions in a variety of ways [1]. There are numerous challenges to overcome in the detection, treatment, and diagnosis of cancer that nanotechnology can address [2]. Cancer diagnosis and treatment can benefit from a wide range of nanotechnology applications, including detection, diagnosis, drug delivery and gene therapy, drug carriage, biomarker mapping and targeted therapy [3]. Cancerous tissue targeting can be achieved with minimal side effects because of nanotechnology treatments such as the creation of nanoscale drug delivery systems [4, 5]. As a result of their both active and passive targeting capabilities, nanomaterials have been used in the treatment of cancer for many years. Liposomes, polymers, molecules and antibodies have all been used in cancer medication design, with the result that combining these nanomaterials can create a balance between improving efficacy and minimising toxicities [6]. Due to potential toxicity, more research is needed before nanomaterials may be widely used in the clinic for cancer treatment [7].

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