Role of Biomarker in the Diagnosis of Neurodegenerative Diseases

*Haque SS
Department Of Biochemistry, Indira Gandhi Institute Of Medical Sciences, Patna, India

*Corresponding Author:
Haque SS
Department Of Biochemistry, Indira Gandhi Institute Of Medical Sciences, Patna, India
Email:sshaq2002@yahoo.co.in

Published on: 2022-07-11

Abstract

Objectives: Biomarker or biological makers are a molecule that behaves as indicators of biological states; ideally they should have high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in reflecting the total disease burden. Neurodegenerative diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by progressive loss of structure and function of the central nervous system or peripheral nervous system.

Conclusion: Neurological biomarkers are present optimum amount in cerebro spinal fluid (CSF), but they are also present in blood at low levels. In this review we discuss the current status of the biomarkers used in the neurological disorders.

Keywords

Biomarkers, Neurodegeneration, Amyloid, Tau

Introduction

A biomarker is indicator molecules of a biological as well as pathological condition or pharmacological response to a therapeutic intervention. It can be a simple laboratory test or as complex as a pattern of genes or proteins. In real practical point of view, the biomarker would specifically and sensitively reflect a disease condition and could be used for diagnosis as well as for disease monitoring during and following therapy. Biomarkers with molecular approach can be divided into 3 broad categories [1]:

  1. Biomarker that tracks disease progression over time and correlate with known clinical measures.
  2. That detects the effect of a drug.
  3. In clinical trials it behaves as surrogate endpoints.

Characteristics of a biomarker for neurologic disorders

  1. Biomarker should be minimally invasive or non-invasive and produces reproducible results.
  2. There are thousands of biomarkers of various diseases including neurologic disorders, but not all of them have been validated.
  3. Biomarkers in blood can provide early indicators of disease and help in understanding the pathomechanism of disease as well as determine prognosis.
  4. Besides bestowing to diagnosis, biomarkers help in the integration of diagnosis with therapy and are useful for monitoring the course of disease as well as response to treatment.
  5. Some biomarkers are potential targets for discovering new drugs for neurologic disorders and are useful for clinical trials during drug development.
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