Diabetic retinopathy is a significant cause of visual impairment and blindness in patients with diabetes mellitus aged between 20 and 74 years. It refers to retinal changes that occur due to hyperglycemia leading to devastating complications if not managed early. Unfortunately, the majority of patients present late due to the absence of symptoms in the early stages.
Because of the delayed onset of symptoms and the rapid progression of the retinopathy, many screening tools are used to detect early retinal changes in an attempt to improve symptoms and delay progression. Various preventive and therapeutic methods have been used to reduce the morbidity correlated to diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema. The management of diabetic retinopathy depends on the grade, severity, and presence or absence of diabetic macular edema.