Objective: In our previous report, we examined the dietary pattern with the inclusion of eggs in the diets among persons with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), using Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010. In this report, we re-analyzed our data with the current version HEI-2015.
Methods: Randomized, controlled, single-blind, crossover trial of 34 adults (average age 64.5 years; 14 post-menopausal women, 20 men) with T2DM assigned to one of two possible sequence permutations of 2 different 12-week treatments (2 eggs/day inclusion or egg exclusion), with 6-week washout periods between treatment assignments. For the egg inclusion phase, participants received advice from a dietitian on how to preserve an isocaloric condition relative to the egg exclusion phase. Dietary pattern was assessed with HEI-2015 at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks.
Results: Compared with the exclusion of eggs from the habitual diet, the inclusion of eggs marginally reduced the diet quality score for refined grain foods (-0.6±3.4 vs. 0.7±2.2; p=0.0543) at 12 weeks. The diet quality score for total protein foods improved significantly from baseline (0.3±0.6; p=0.0078) at 6 weeks with the inclusion of eggs. The quality of dairy foods score decreased from baseline at 12 weeks (-1.3±2.9; p=0.0089) with the exclusion of eggs.
Conclusions: Short-term daily inclusion of eggs in the habitual diet in adults with T2DM could lead to improved diet quality. Our findings with the current version of HEI-2015 are somewhat similar to those that we observed using the preceding version HEI-2010.
Eggs, Diet Quality, Dietary Pattern, Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetes is a public health problem of epidemic proportions, affecting approximately 35 million individuals in the United States (US) . Yet, only about 27 million of these individuals are diagnosed . An estimated 35% adults aged 18 years and older have pre-diabetes; only 1 of 10 persons with pre-diabetes is aware . Within 5 years of having pre-diabetes, 15-30% of persons with pre-diabetes are expected to develop Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) . The complications of diabetes include stroke, cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, blindness, nervous system damage, kidney disease, limb amputations, and biochemical imbalances that can cause acute life-threatening events . Total medical costs, including lost work and wages, for persons diagnosed with diabetes are estimated to be $327 billion . Compared to persons without diabetes, persons with diabetes have medical costs that are more than two times higher , a risk of death that is more than 50% higher , and rates of cardiovascular mortality that are 2 to 4 times higher .