Exosomes in Cancer Therapy-Literature Review

*Seema Kumari
Department Of Biochemistry And Bioinformatics, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, India

*Corresponding Author:
Seema Kumari
Department Of Biochemistry And Bioinformatics, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, India

Published on: 2021-06-26

Abstract

Nanovesicles known as exosomes have intrigued the scientific and clinical communities’ curiosity. As a messenger that can directly communicate with different and distinct target cells via blood circulation with their membrane associated particles or transport their contents into cells as a direct stimulus, tumour exosomes play an important role in targeted therapy. They are expressed at high levels during tumorigenesis. They serve as a biomarker for the development of cancer. Because exosomes are biocompatible and biodegradable, they can be used in cancer therapy because they are low toxic and immunogenic.

Keywords

Exosomes, Target Therapy, Tumor, Biomarkers

Introduction

Endosomal nanovesicles (70-150 nm in diameter) released by cells are known as exosomes. Cellular intercellular communication has recently attracted much attention from the scientific and clinical communities because of its participation in practically all physiological and pathological processes there are exosomes in every cell and they share the same lipid bilayer, transmembrane proteins, and panel of encapsulated soluble proteins and RNAs with their parent cell. The secretion pathway of exosomes is being unravelled [1]. For example, the release of exosomes and microvesicles from adipocytes is dramatically decreased with inhibition of histone H3 lysine9 methyltransferase G9a and histone H3 lysine4 demethylase LSD1 [2]. H3K9me2 and H4Kme3 may be necessary for the release of exosomes in mammalian cells, as demonstrated by this study. A recent study found that histone methyltransferase G9a and its G9a-like protein partner maintain DNA methylation at imprinted loci in embryonic stem cells, indicating that aberrant DNA methylation distribution might also drive the release of exosomes, as recently reported. Using surface receptors, recipient cells are able to identify and grab exosomes, and the exosomes themselves can alter the physiological state of the recipient cells they encounter. A closer look into the possibilities of these exosomes may be done:

  1. As a biomarker in many diseases, to help diagnose ailments before they worsen, and/or
  2. As a target to be blocked or destroyed to improve cancer patients’ health.
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