Cancer is one of the leading groups of diseases which occur due to uncontrolled cell proliferation, differentiation, metastasis, apoptosis resistance, angiogenesis, mutations, dysfunction in immunity, therefore resulting in a tumor. Conventional chemotherapy is commonly used as the first line of treatment for cancer patients with some chemotherapeutic drugs, but it shows adverse side effects, such as chemoresistance, radioresistance, stem cell property when healthy cells are exposed to these drugs. With a motive to reduce such side effects ‘adjuvants’ are used in combination with these chemotherapeutic drugs. ‘Phytochemicals’ are plant-derived compounds that are beneficial in adjuvant therapy as they show numerous properties that can control cancer expansion. They act as an epigenetic modulator; they can inhibit those enzymes which regulate cell cycle progression. Furthermore, they induce apoptosis and promote cell cycle arrest in cancerous cells. Curcumin, Emodin, Resveratrol, Nimbolide, Gingerol, EGCG, and a few other Flavonoids, Alkaloids, and Phenols are some plant-derived phytochemicals with the greater potentiality to be used in adjuvant therapy. Through studies and Research, it is visualized that these phytochemicals show chemo-preventive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-cancerous properties by regulating EMT and aggressiveness of cancer cells.
Phytochemicals; Chemoresistance; Apoptosis; EMT; Conventional chemotherapy; Metastasis
Carcinoma of Neoplastic Disease is one of the leading health disorders occurring to humans and the very reason for the high mortality rate all around the globe. Around 80% of people face death due to Cancer. Moreover, cancer has increased in recent few years; approximately 1,665,540 people were diagnosed with different types of cancer, and 585,720 of them died (In the United States alone) by 2014 . Cancer and its types can be classified into- Breast Cancer, Lung Cancer, Colorectal Cancer, Prostate Cancer, Pancreatic Cancer, Oral Cancer, and many more. In and around our Earth, the majority of people get affected by Lung and Breast cancer. Lung and bronchus cancer, colorectal cancer are quite common in both males and females, whereas Prostate Cancer occurs in male while Breast Cancer, Uterine and Thyroid Cancer is more common in females respectively . However, in the case of children, Blood cancer, and cancers related to the brain and lymph nodes, are found to be more frequent and in higher percentages as compared to other types of cancer [3,4]. Cancer mainly occurs due to consecutive mutations in the genes which leads to changes in cell functioning, thereby uncontrolled cell division, down the cell cycle. Chemical, as well as physical mutagens, are the most probable agents that cause mutation in the genes. Smoking, Tobacco, Betel quid, Alcohol also produces several carcinogenic chemical mutagens that cause lung cancer or other respiratory carcinomas .