To determine the prevalence of refractive error (RE) as a cause in squinted in children in this aged (6-12 years) in Sulaimania city. The prevalence rate study among patient attending Shahed Dr. Aso eye hospital for the period from 1st October 2008 - 1st June 2009. A total of 116 children (6-12 years) attending squint department for about 8 months. The study included both sexes, were boys 55 and girls 61. Under went full ocular examination. We found that (72) patients (62.02%) had refractive error, include: 33 patients (45.9 %) = Hypermetropia (H); 22 patients (29.16%) = Myopia [M]; 18 patients (24.3%) Astigmatism (Ast.); 4 mixed; 6 H-Ast. and 8 M-Ast. In conclusions, the most prevalent cause of childhood squint at this aged (6-12 years) is refractive error while the other causes as a whole constitute only 1/3 of the causes, and most common refractive error is hypermetropia.