Oral Manifestations and Olfactory and Gustatory Dysfunction in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-Cov-2 Virus) Disease: A Systematic Review

Abhishek Singh Nayyar,

Published on: 2021-01-11


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 virus) disease had first appeared in December 2019 in Wuhan, China and has been spreading quickly throughout the world since then. Since then, the outbreak of this severe viral disease has become a global threat to humanity. An early diagnosis and isolation are the most significant measures required to prevent its spread. Recent anecdotal evidence has suggested oral manifestations with or, without olfactory and gustatory impairment in association with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) is expressed in oral mucosa in large amounts and can, thus, contribute to the early manifestations of this deadly viral disease. The oral manifestations of coronavirus disease can occur in the form of irregular ulcerative lesions in relation to different parts of the oral cavity and particularly, in relation to the attached mucosa in the hard palate region as well as inflammation and subsequent, atrophy of the various tongue papilla. The associated olfactory and gustatory dysfunction can, also, lead to partial and/or, even a complete loss of the ability to smell and taste in the early stages of the disease onset. Evidence has, also, suggested the presence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in human saliva making it the carrier of the infectious viral disease as well as aiding in its diagnosis. We have systematically searched medical database for the same and have reviewed all the literature available up to 29th of June 2020.

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