The water affects many variables, which are achieved by the lack of compatibility in the proportions of water components according to international standards due to human and industrial waste, health and massacres and other places, which lead to raise the temperature of water from the permissible limit in a manner that affects the vitality of living organisms, especially fish, which is the main source of food for the population, As the fish wealth of various types were decreasing and decline in their numbers and types due to the nature of human uses of throwing dirt, sewage or wastewater from residential, industrial and commercial, which affect the changing temperature of water, except temperature that prompted the researcher to the need for a water quality analysis with respect to temperature and the extent of its impact on the changing nature of the preparation of living organisms. The research focuses on three main axes that highlight the scientific and correct objective of knowing the problem of thermal pollution of surface water in Iraq and the most appropriate standards for water quality. The first guarantees the thermal pollution of the surface water of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq and its causes. The second axis focused on qualitative hydrological analysis of water quality. The study aimed at the third axis, which included the most important measures to be taken by the countries and concerned parties to mitigate the risk of contaminated water and its effects on the economic life of the population of the study area.