Body Mass Index as the Risk Factor Affecting Knee Osteoarthritis of the Elderly

*Jordan Sugiarto
Department Of Orthopaedics, Prof. Dr. WZ Johannes General Hospital, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia

*Corresponding Author:
Jordan Sugiarto
Department Of Orthopaedics, Prof. Dr. WZ Johannes General Hospital, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia
Email:jordansugiarto@gmail.com

Published on: 2021-04-06

Abstract

Introduction: Osteoarthritis is a disease that progresses over time and culminates in the destruction of articular and joints. Indonesia Basic Health Research (RISKESDAS) 2013 shows that East Nusa Tenggara Province have the highest prevalence of the rheumatic disease in Indonesia, about 33.1%.

Method: This research is an observational-analytic study with a cross-sectional design, which aims to determine the factors affecting osteoarthritis of the elderly at Sikumana Community Health Center, Maulafa District, Kupang City, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia from December 2018 to February 2019.

Result: In this research, body mass index/BMI (PR=1.21, p=0.037) has a significant correlation to osteoarthritis of the elderly, yet gender (PR=1.02, p=0.839) and history of knee trauma (PR=1.08, p=0.453) have no significant correlation to osteoarthritis of the elderly.

Conclusion: An overweight body increases the mechanical pressure of the knee joint, which causes osteoarthritis. The research shows, women have a higher risk of osteoarthritis compared to men. The higher the BMI, the prevalence of osteoarthritis increases significantly. Around 41% of the elderly with osteoarthritis have obesity. Amongst any other risks, obesity shows a correlation with the prevalence of osteoarthritis. Patients’ awareness of the body mass index (BMI) should be increased to reduce the prevalence of osteoarthritis.

Keywords

Osteoarthritis, Elderly, Risk Factors, Body Mass Index

Introduction

Osteoarthritis is a disease that progresses over time and culminates in the destruction of articular cartilage. Osteoarthritis of the knee is very common, affecting 12.4 million (33.6%) adults over the age of 65. Thus, with an increasing elderly population, the treatment of knee osteoarthritis has become a major healthcare issue. Interestingly, women are more affected and burdened by osteoarthritis of the knee than men [1].

In Indonesia, osteoarthritis is the most common rheumatic disease compared to others. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the number of patients with osteoarthritis in Indonesia is about 8.1% [2]. Indonesia Basic Health Research (RISKESDAS) 2013 states that East Nusa Tenggara Province had the highest number of patients with rheumatic diseases (33.1%) [3].

Global estimates are that 9.6% of men and 18.0% of women >60 years of age have symptomatic (painful) osteoarthritis. Eighty percent of patients with osteoarthritis have limitations in movement and 25% cannot perform their major daily activities. According to WHO, the elderly is a classification of people who are between 60-74 years old [4].

This research aims to determine the factors affecting osteoarthritis of the elderly at Sikumana Community Health Center.

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