Character of Changes of the Absolute and Relative Amounts of the Main Populations of Immune-Competent Cells of the Peripheral Blood of Children with Visual Impairments

*Dychko V
Department Of Medicine, Sloviansk, Donbas State Pedagogical University, Ukraine

*Corresponding Author:
Dychko V
Department Of Medicine, Sloviansk, Donbas State Pedagogical University, Ukraine

Published on: 2020-09-21

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to investigate the nature of changes of the absolute and relative numbers of major populations of immune-competent cells of peripheral blood of children with visual impairment aged 7-10 years.
We surveyed 63 children at the age of 7-10 years, including children with visual impairments (14 boys and 17 girls) average age of whom is 8.48 ± 0.13 years, and practice healthy peers with normal vision (16 boys and 16 girls) an average age of whom is 8.53 ± 0.13 years.
Whole blood was selected to study the level of adaptive stress, cellular reactivity of the body of children with visual impairments. Blood for general analysis was taken not from the finger, so as not to disturb the sensory mechanisms (sense of touch) of sensitivity of children with disabilities, but from the elbow vein. Blood tests were carried out by well-known and accepted methods worldwide.
It is established that in children with visual disorders the tendencies of increasing of absolute and relative number of ICCs are formed, involved in realization of nonspecific anti-infective protection, as well as increasing of absolute number of lymphocytes and decreasing of relative number of lymphocytes and monocytes. Also, it is established that absolute number of leukocytes in the peripheral blood of girls is dominated by the absolute number of leukocytes in boys with vision impairment - by 9.12% (P <0.05), the relative number of eosinophils - by 39.86% and ESR - by 13.34%.

Keywords

Children; Visual Impairment; ICC (Immune-Competent Cells); Pathology

Introduction

Formulation of the Problem in General
One of the most relevant in modern physiology and pathological physiology is the problem of individualization of adaptive reactions of the body of almost healthy children and children suffering from certain diseases and disease states (people with vision pathology) to various stimuli, diseases and certain conditions [1-3].
The immune component and adaptive reactions are present in the development of any pathology, because the immune system is a critical target for the negative effects of external and internal pathogenic factors. In the first stages of the disease immunological changes are diagnostic, and then they become pathogenetic. Pathogenetic mechanisms of adaptation of the body of the child in the state of visual impairment and blindness, environmental conditions, physical, mental and psychological load are provided by his reserves, including the immune system. Among the types of immunity are species (hereditary, congenital, nonspecific) and acquired (adaptive), which is the specific immunity determined by the stability, stability of the absolute and relative numbers of the main populations of immune-competent cells (ICC), the level of adaptive voltage, the level of adaptation voltage, cellular and immunological reactivity to various environmental factors and conditions of the body. The leading place in hereditary and immune protection belongs to the population of neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes (granulocytes), which form a reactive response in the formation of adaptation processes, cellular and immunological reactivity of the organism [3,4-9].

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