Dietary Etiological Factors Contributing to the Prevalence of Hyperuricemia in Makkah Region

*Osama A Shaikhomar
Department Of Physiology, Faculty Of Medicine, Umm Al Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

*Corresponding Author:
Osama A Shaikhomar
Department Of Physiology, Faculty Of Medicine, Umm Al Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

Published on: 2020-08-04


Background: Recently there was an evolution in nutrition science, and scientific discoveries continued to highlight the importance of food in health maintenance and disease prevention.
Aim of the work: to investigate the association between purine-rich foods and body composition with the prevalence of hyperuricemia in Makkah city.
Methods: A convenes sample of one hundred subject’s male (n=77) and female (n=23) were chosen from inpatient and outpatient orthopaedic clinics and labs in hospitals in Makkah city, in the age range of 20-65 years. Data was collected through an interview with patients by using special questionnaire. A food frequency questionnaire was used to illustrate the consumption rate of purine foods. The weight and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) was estimated. Body composition was evaluated by Bodystat® Omron device. Blood uric acid, urea and creatinine were determined.
Results: About 23.4% of male subjects were Hyperuricemic patients. Mean value of uric acid was significantly higher for hyperuricemia subjects compared to Normouricemia (NU) (0.78 ±0.15 vs 0.33±0.06 µmol/l; p<0.001). There was a highly significant positive correlation (P<0.01) between hyperuricemia and each of age, waist, and visceral fat, as well as the consumption of camel meat, fish, salmon, liver, lentil and beans.
Conclusion: All hyperuricemic subjects were found to be male and the suspected cause was purine-rich diets and decreased activity. Hyperuricemia associated with an increase of age and visceral fat level. Therefore, nutrition education is recommended to improving nutrition and health status and protective of hyperuricemia.


Hyperuricemic; Purine; Protein; Uric Acid; Body Composition; Makkah; KSA


Gout is a rheumatic disease due to the deposition of uric acid (UA) a waste in the body that the kidneys get rid of it through the urine. But when the body cannot remove UA enough or that the body produces large amount of it, this acid deposition in the form of crystals in many parts of the body including the joints causes the gout disease [1]. In humans, the upper end of the normal range is 360 µmol/L (6 mg/dL) for women and 400 µmol/L (6.8 mg/dL) for men [2]. In that respect, the significance of current study is to find the relationship between diet and the prevalence of hyperuricemia in Saudi Arabia and particularly in Makkah Area.
Lifestyle and Diet may play an important role in the development of hyperuricemia and gout. However, the association between dietary factors and hyperuricemia remains unclear, and few studies have though investigated direct links between food intake and hyperuricemia. Dietary causes account for about 12% of gout [3] and include a strong association with the consumption of alcohol, high saturated fats, fructose-sweetened drinks, meat, and seafood [4,5]. Recent studies have found dietary factors once believed associated with gout have in fact, the opposite effect including the intake of purine rich vegetables (e.g., beans, peas, lentils, and spinach) and total protein [6]. The consumption of coffee, vitamin C and dairy products, as well as physical fitness, appear to decrease the risk of gout [7-9]. This is believed partly due to their effect in reducing insulin resistance.

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