Objective: This study was aimed to investigate the changes in some immunological markers with different concentrations of vitamin D. The parameters are immunoglobulin (IgA, IgM, and IgG,), anti-phospholipid ( IgM, IgG), Anti-cardiolipin ( IgM, IgG) and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR).
Methods: The specimens were collected from 90 volunteers. The samples were separated into three groups. The first group includes specimens with a normal value of vitamin D and the second group includes, people with marginal deficiency levels, as well as, the group with vitamin D deficiency. These tests were done on samples of ninety single males and their ages were 20-25 years. Serum Immunoglobulin (IgA, IgM, IgG) is detected by using Single Radial Immuno Diffusion (SRID). Enzymelinked Immune Sorbent Assay (ELISA) technique was used to measure the concentration of vitamin D, anti-phospholipid (IgM, IgG) and anti-cardiolipin( IgM, IgG). Westergren method was used to measure Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR).
Results: There was a change in levels of immunological indicators involved in this study. The differences were significantly decreased (P<0.05) in the case of IgA concentration but it was non-significant in the case of IgM, IgG. The present study showed that the APL (IgM, IgG) and ACL (IgM, IgG) slightly increased but it did not reach the level of significance. The level of ESR increased significantly (P <0.05).
Conclusions: Changes in immunological processes for many parameters that shared in the current study was associated with both marginal deficiency group and vitamin D deficiency group. Vitamin D deficiency also activates the inflammatory cells to increase and decrease of inflammatory indicators.
Vitamin D, IgA, IgM, IgG, Anti-phospholipid, Anti-cardiolipin, ESR
Vitamin D deficiency is now recognized as a prevalent disease in the world. The major cause of vitamin D deficiency is less exposed to sunlight which is the main source of vitamin D for humans. Foods that are rich in Vitamin D are not provided or foods are fortified with Vitamin D is not enough to a child’s or an adult’s vitamin D requirement. The decrease in Vitamin D level deficiency causes the development of immune-related diseases such as autoimmune diseases [1,2].
Vitamin D is an essential element for many processes inside the body especially bone metabolism as it increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, which is important for skeletal health. Vitamin D is called a vitamin; on the other hand, it is a steroid pro-hormone acting in different places in the body. The vitamin D status of an individual is a result of both genetics and the environment. The major source of vitamin D is forming in the skin when exposed to the sun. In addition, vitamin D is absorbed from food and supplements. There are few foods have vitamin D. There are many factors that influence on the production of vitamin D in the skin; habits of sun exposure, Effect types of clothing worn, age and latitude supplementation intake, skin pigmentation and different genotypes of vitamin D binding protein, as well as, enzymes may affect the vitamin D status [3-5]. Sim and colleagues have suggested that vitamin D has an important role in erythropoiesis and that deficiency brings a risk of anaemia with a lower concentration of haemoglobin and higher usage of erythrocytestimulating agents. Vitamin D plays a major role in the modulation of the Immune system . Immune components together with Vitamin D play a significant role in human health . Vitamin D regulates the production of inflammatory cytokines and immune cells, which play a role in the pathogenesis of many immune-related diseases. This is because Vitamin D has receptors on immune cells (B cells, T cells, and antigen presenting cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells) .
Vitamin D caused the decrease of inflammatory cytokines especially, IL-2 and interferon-gamma, modulating the differentiation and function of antigen-presenting cells (APC), thereby diminishing the activity of autoreactive T cells affects the stimulation of interleukin 4 production by T- helper 2 cells (Th2), and in the increasing of regulatory T cells, in particular, interleukin-10 (IL-10). It is important to inhibit inflammation and decreasing the production of interleukin 17 (IL-17) by T- helper 17 cells (Th17). These mechanisms can play essential roles in reducing and ending inflammation [8,9]. Vitamin D has an effective role in preventing some types of diseases such as colon and prostate cancers, osteoporosis and diabetes type 1. Also, vitamin D has a relationship in chronic obesity-related diseases such as Mellitus diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and hypertension [10-12]. Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is associated with the production of anti-cardiolipin (aCL) antibodies, which develop against the negatively charged phospholipids present in cell membranes. The syndrome may coexist with several, predominantly autoimmune diseases (secondary APS), or it may be present without any other disease. It has been reported that the incidence of aCL antibody positivity increases with age and concomitant chronic diseases [13-16]. A diabetic is an actual cause for atherogenic vascular diseases that arise from endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress and inflammation. Immunological mechanisms might have a role in the pathogenesis of diabetic microangiopathy via immune complex deposition. Anti-cardiolipin (aCL) antibodies are a type of anti-phospholipid antibodies that binds to Cardiolipin in the presence of cofactor β2 glycoprotein 1(b2GPI). These (aCL) antibodies may promote ischemia and thrombosis through several mechanisms including functional alteration of protein C, impaired fibrinolysis, altered anti-thrombin level, inhibition of prostacyclin activity, platelet aggregability and complement activation [17,18]. Previous studies reflect the differences in the increased prevalence of antiphospholipid antibodies in types 1 and 2 diabetic patients .
Therefore, this research aimed to investigate some immunological markers including immunoglobulins, ESR, anti- phospholipids and anti-cardiolipin in different Vitamin D levels (enough, insufficient, and deficient) on single males. In this article, we address these issues with specific reference to the role of vitamin D in immune modulating.