Effects of Some Environmental Factors on the Biochemical Composition of Chlorella vulgaris Algae

*Ali Yasser Hafit
Department Of Biology, Faculty Of Education For Girls, University Of Kufa, Iraq

*Corresponding Author:
Ali Yasser Hafit
Department Of Biology, Faculty Of Education For Girls, University Of Kufa, Iraq
Email:Ar60ali@gmail.com

Published on: 2020-07-30

Abstract

This study aimed to stimulation of some environmental factors (pH, temperature, and herbicide) on nutritional content of Chlorella vulgaris algae. The concentration of protein, carbohydrates and lipids and chlorophyll in control were 62.20%, 12.35%, 4.4 %, 1.6 mg/100 ml respectively. Also, the study showed that pH 8.5 was the most appropriate to produce the highest content of chemical compounds (protein, carbohydrates lipids, total energy and Protein digest rate Protein and chlorophyll (62.11%, 13.6%, 3.8%, 488%, 84% and 2.0% respectively). The temperature 35°C was the most appropriate and gave the highest content to most of the studied compounds. But, an exception from that of unsaturated fatty acids reached 22.39% total lipids. The temperature 35ºC is the most appropriate and gave the highest content of the majority of compounds studied. The results showed that the use of the herbicide (Atrazine) affected negatively on all studied nutrition.

Keywords

Chlorella vulgaris; Carbohydrates; Proteins; Lipids; Chlorophyll

Introduction

The history of the appearance of algae dates back to the Precambrian about 3.5 billion years and the oldest algae that appeared on the surface of the earth belongs to the algae other than the reality of the prokaryotes, which are blue-green algae, which are characterized by being missing the nuclear membrane, and lacking the presence of cellular organelles and chloroplasts. Dyes are diffuse on photosynthetic building sheets, represented by the basic a chlorophyll, as well as the auxiliary dyes of carotines and zanthophylles, including myxoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and biloprotein, including phycocyanin and kahecoeryrine [1]. Their sex organs either unicellular but always non-jacketed. Algae are considered to be autotrophic plants and have the ability to supply oxygen during photosynthesis, as they contain different types of chlorophyll pigments and other pigments such as carotenoids, xanthophylls, and other pigments found in genus and certain species of them and also contain important chemical components like (proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and most mineral elements) [2,3]. Algae are present and spread in various environments in all parts of the world, they are found in the water environment and they are called Aquatic algae or on land and are called Terrestrial algae or airborne algae or Aerophytes such as those that grow on the surface of soils on the leaves of higher plants. The term algae growing on plants is called the term Epiphytic algae [4]. Algae cells have a high ability to grow and absorb nutrients and within a temperate climate with natural conditions compared to high-end plants [5]. Because of their rapid growth, they are considered one of the most efficient organisms in producing biomass and spread in all environments [6]. It has medicinal importance as it plays an important role as antidotes (anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-parasite and anti-carcinogenic) it is also considered one of the most important antioxidants [7]. Algae organisms are not complicated in their structure, but they are an integral laboratory for converting light energy and nutrients present in their environments into organic materials with a high nutritional level [8]. Therefore, the study of chemical content is considered one of the methods used to determine the chemical content of algal cells [9]. It has been observed that growth factors play an important role in determining and forming the chemical content of algae and therefore in determining the nutritional value of them. These factors or conditions of growth are the main and important factor in determining the chemical content and greatly influencing that content and the readiness of the chemical elements and components of the organisms used for these algae as food. In the environment, pollution is a factor affecting the growth of algae, its chemical content and nutritional value. The present study aims to study the effect of different levels of some environmental factors such as pH, temperature, in addition to the effect of a pollutant herbicide Pesticides (Atrazine) on the chemical content of Chlorella vulgaris.

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