This study focuses on the heavy metals concentrations (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd) in certain common milk species are collected from Iraqi markets using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer-6300 AA, Shimadzu, Japan, respectively. This study shows the pollution in the environment obtained by heavy metals. The results showed that Cr, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Fe were varying according to the order: Zn>Fe>Cr>Cd>Cu. levels of heavy metals were 0.610(Cr), 0.125(Cd), 0.052(Cu), and 6.902(Zn), and 0.759(Fe). All the heavy metals were observed within the maximum limit in milk. Overall, the number of analyzed heavy metals and sample size were limited in the present study.
Heavy metals; Milk; Najaf; Flame atomic absorption; Spectrophotometer
Environmental pollution is a source of daily concern to the different segments of society because of its multiple forms and the expansion of its forms that negatively affect the environment and human health. According to WHO standards, pollution is defined as any quantitative or qualitative change in the components of the Earth from the normal limit, whether it is an increase or decrease, which leads to an imbalance in the natural components of the ecosystem . Heavy elements are the most important problems of environmental pollution in the present time for their spread in nature due to the accumulation of industrial wastes and pesticides, and others, including lead, copper, zinc, chromium and cobalt, and its importance in the presence of very low concentrations of parts in million [2-7]. Increasing these elements from the natural limit makes them toxic and harmful and affects the health of animals and humans. Where it is transmitted to the animal through the skin, digestive tract or respiratory tract causing toxic and functional effects. These elements are hazardous because they are not chemically or thermally disintegrated, and lead to their build-up in the environment, food contamination and disease, such as cancer . Where these elements are transferred to the milk causing damage to the consumer. Heavy metal in milk and is a matter of great concern for food safety and human health. Milk contaminated with metals (zinc, lead, cadmium, selenium, sulphur, iodine and possibly even more dangerous arsenic and cyanide) . It is toxic in nature and even at relatively low concentrations can cause adverse effects for human health. Heavy metal contamination in milk has been reported from a different region in various studies.