Ovarian tumors are the most common gynecological disorders. Ovarian tumors are the third most common tumor in women. Ovarian tumors are sometimes asymptomatic and have non-specific symptoms, making most cases difficult to detect early. The aim of this study was to investigate genitourinary features of ovarian tumor in a hospital-based study. An observational study was conducted in Baghdad, Iraq, between September 2018 and February 2021. Women diagnosed with ovarian tumors at 18 years of age or older. A total of Fifty women who enrolled in our hospital. Clinical and pathological data collected and analyzed. Data about comorbidities and outcomes were approved and diagnosed by full team of multidisciplinary gynecological and urological doctors were recorded. Overall incidence of ovarian tumors was 70% malignant and 30% benign. The study showed that the most age group of ovarian tumors was above 55 years (62%). Half of patients were nulliparities. Educational level was mostly of low level in illiterate (20%), primary (24%), secondary (36%) compared to high level. Women used contraception in 52%. The family history reported in 18% of women. The most common histopathological type was ovarian serous carcinoma 15 (30%). Regional stages were common in 50% of patients. Low grade tumors in 32%, intermediate in 36% and high in 32%. Almost, 80% of women underwent TAH. About 60% of patients received chemotherapy. The long-term adverse genitourinary health outcomes correlated included Nephritis (6%), Acute renal failure (16%), chronic kidney disease (18%), UTI (38%), Calculus (16%), Hydronephrosis (20%), Bladder obstruction (2%), Ureteric stenosis (12%), Urine retention (8%), Urine incontinence (12%), Hematuria (22%), PID (14%), Organ adhesion (8%), Cervicitis (2%), Endometriosis (2%), Cyst (6%), Menstrual disorders (24%), Infertility (2%), and Menopausal pain (32%). In conclusion, ovarian cancer represents the third most common gynecologic cancer type. It was more common in women aged above five decades. The most common histopathological type is ovarian serous carcinoma. We observed that ovarian cancer survivors experienced increased risks of various genitourinary diseases. Understanding the multi-morbidity scenarios for ovarian tumors is of vital importance to improve clinical care after diagnosis.
Ovarian Tumor; Genitourinary Findings; Ovarian Serous Carcinoma; Acute Renal Failure; Urine Retention; Calculus; UTI
Ovarian tumors are the most common gynecological problems, mostly present as cystic lesions. Its incidence ranging from 5% to 15% worldwide. Benign fibroids are the most common, reaching a third of new gynecological cases annually. Non-neoplasms benign ovarian tumors are caused by inflammation or the late effects of endocrine secretions, whereas neoplasms are caused by abnormal growth of cells . Globally, there were 313,959 new cases of ovarian tumor, and 207,252 new deaths in 2021 . In Iraq, there were 914 new cases of ovarian carcinoma, in addition to 678 deaths in 2020 . Early menarche and late menopause are commonly known risk factors, besides, endometriosis, smoking, alcohol and family history [4,5].
Ovarian cancers are asymptomatic and have non-specific symptoms, making them difficult to diagnose early. Initial physical examination is the easiest approach to suspect the diagnosis of ovarian tumor . Although screening methods have been developed to be able to diagnose ovarian tumors at an early stage . Therefore, practitioners were able to perform the correct physical examinations and findings that support workup for ovarian tumors [4,5].
Ovarian cancer is revealed an increased abdominal volume, which confused with gastrointestinal and urinary tracts conditions [1,4]. About 80% of cases are diagnosed at advanced stages, and symptoms will depend on the organ affected and invaded. At this time the woman experiences gastrointestinal upset, with lower abdominal or pelvic pain, constipation, diarrhea, vaginal bleeding, ascites, and may be UTI symptoms .