The nose is structurally complex and this complexity results in nasal shape variations. The study aimed to determine the nasal septal deviations occurrence in relation to external nasal deformities. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Ear, Nose and Throat, in our hospital. All the individuals had septal deviation with external nasal deformity from November 2017 to November 2018. Those patients be evaluated by comprehensive clinical examination of ear, nose and throat. Patient’s symptoms are rated with Sino-Nasal Test -22 questionnaire. Septal deformities were classified using Mladina classification modified. External nasal deformities were classified employing Yong Jo Jang’s classification. Approximately, 43% were males and 57% were females. About 90% of patients aged from 21 years to 50 years. About 58% of patients were symptomatic while the rest 42% were without symptoms. On correlating the symptoms with the type of deviation it was found significantly association (P=0.05). Majority of individuals are in the middle age group. Type II and IV are the most common types of NSD whereas type I is a common END. Noteworthy finding of our study is patients had no deformity.
Nasal Cavity; Nasal Endoscopy; Nasal Sepal Deviation; External Nasal Deformity; Sino-Nasal Symptoms
One of the most fragile organs in our body is the nose. The outer nose serves the cosmetic purpose by improving an individual’s personality and attractiveness .
The nose is the primary mammalian breathing route and serves important functions, including nasal respiration, defence of the lower respiratory tract by inspired air filtration, air conditioning, mucociliary function, sneeze reflex and humidification, vocal resonance, olfactory resonance and an outlet to lacrimation .
The nasal cavity is divided by nasal septum into two air filled spaces. Each side of the cavity is divided by three conchae, or turbinates . Deviation of the cartilage and/or bony structure of the nasal septum from the midline can cause various nasal symptoms, such as nasal obstruction. Deviated nasal septum (DNS) incidence is due to numerous causes, including ethnic factors, septum birth moulding during parturition, trauma and septum developmental deformities . The internal nasal valve (INV) is a major anatomical landmark. It is a cross sectional area defined medially by the dorsal septum, laterally by caudal part of the upper lateral cartilage, and inferiorly by the head of inferior concha .
The human nose is complex structure, and the midline deformities are hump nose, saddle nose, tip deformities and lateral nasal deformities are crooked nose, deviated nose, alar depression are common forms of deformity affecting the external nose . External nasal deformities was categorised by YongJo Jang’s into five types (Supplementary I), and it was focused on the bony pyramid orientation with the cartilaginous vault .
Nasal septal deviation lead to nasal obstruction, which best explained as perceived sense of dropped airflow through nose or a feeling of fullness of face .
The study aimed to determine the nasal septal deviations occurrence in relation to external nasal deformities.