This study aimed to determine the effect of high blood glucose on the histological variables in alloxan-induced diabetes male rats. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from insufficiency in the production or action of insulin produced by the pancreas inside the body. Sidewise to hyperglycemia, several other factors play a great role in the pathogenesis of diabetes such as hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress leading to a high risk of complications. Alloxan, which is chemically known as 5,5-dihydroxyl pyrimidine-2,4,6-trione is an organic compound, is the most widely used in diabetes studies. During diabetes, persistent hyperglycemia causes increased production of free radicals especially reactive oxygen species (ROS) for all tissues from glucose auto-oxidation and protein glycosylation. Free radicals may play a crucial role in the causation and complications of diabetes mellitus. The induced diabetes led to additional changes in the liver tissues of infected animals (G2,G3) compared with the control group (G1), as shown in the liver of group 2 there is a dilatation of portal vessels with prevascular inflammatory cell infiltration and dilatation of central vein congestion with inflammatory cell aggregations while we show in the group 3 severe congestion and dilatation of central vein with vacuolated hepatocytes and atrophy of sinusoid, marked coagulative necrosis (nuclei with karyolysis and karyorrhexis) with inflammatory cell proliferation and binucleate hepatocyte and hepatocellular atrophy and correspondingly wide sinusoids with clear pyknotic nuclei of apoptotic cells. Hepatocytes showing different stages of mitotic divisions. The induced diabetes led to a significant increase in apoptotic cell death of the liver in the diabetic groups (G2,G3) Which is expressed by the percentage (15,71%, 27,73%) compared with the control group ( G1) 9.32%.
Diabetes; Alloxan; High Blood Glucose
Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases characterized by an elevated blood glucose level (hyperglycemia) resulting from defects in insulin secretion, or insulin action, or both [1-3]. Common symptoms of diabetes are lethargy from marked hyperglycemia, polyuria, polydipsia, weight loss, blurred vision, and susceptibility to certain infections. Diabetes mellitus can be classified in different ways, however, diabetes is mostly classified basically into two major types: Type I Diabetes (IDDM) and Type II Diabetes (NIDDM). In type I Diabetes (IDDM) insulin secretion is deficient due to the autoimmune destruction of beta-pancreatic cells (β cells) that leads to metabolic disturbances associated with IDDM . The end-stage of β-cells destruction represents the onset of clinical disease leading to type I diabetes mellitus . Autoimmunity, genetic makeup, and environmental factors are responsible for islets cell destruction . In Type II Diabetes (NIDDM) there are some disorders in mechanisms that keep regulation between tissue sensitivity to insulin, which consequently leads to impaired insulin secretion by the pancreatic β cells and impaired insulin action through insulin resistance . In this type of diabetes, multiple genetic defects, and certain environmental factors especially obesity are responsible for β cell defects and peripheral tissue insulin resistance respectively .